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《中国性别平等与妇女发展》白皮书(双语全文)

作者: 岳阳翻译公司 发布时间:2017-05-23 15:25:11  点击率:

 《中国性别平等与妇女发展》白皮书(双语全文)IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

国务院新闻办公室22日发表《中国性别平等与妇女发展》白皮书。全文如下:IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
The Information Office of the State Council, or China's Cabinet, on Tuesday issued a white paper on Gender Equality and Women's Development in China. Following is the full text:IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

中国性别平等与妇女发展IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
Gender Equality and Women's Development in ChinaIRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

(2015年9月)IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
September 2015, BeijingIRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of ChinaIRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

目录IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
ContentsIRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

前言IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
ForewordIRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

一、性别平等与妇女发展的机制保障IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
I. The Institutional Foundation for Gender Equality and Women's DevelopmentIRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

二、妇女与经济IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
II. Women and the EconomyIRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

三、妇女与教育IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
III. Women and EducationIRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

四、妇女与健康IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
IV. Women and HealthIRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

五、妇女与决策管理IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
V. Women and Decision MakingIRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

六、妇女与环境IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
VI. Women and the EnvironmentIRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

七、性别平等与妇女发展的法治保障IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
VII. Legal Guarantees for Gender Equality and Women's DevelopmentIRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

八、性别平等与妇女发展的国际交流合作IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
VIII. International Exchanges and Cooperation in Gender Equality and Women's DevelopmentIRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

结束语IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
ConclusionIRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

 IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

前言IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
Foreword
IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

性别平等与妇女发展是人类追求公平、正义与平等的永恒主题,是社会文明进步的衡量尺度,是人类实现可持续发展的重要目标。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
Gender equality and women's development is a lasting theme of mankind's pursuit of equality and justice, a scale for measuring social progress and an important goal in realizing sustainable development in our world.
IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

中国始终坚持男女平等的宪法原则,将男女平等作为促进国家社会发展的一项基本国策,不断完善法律法规,制定公共政策,编制发展规划,持续推进性别平等与妇女发展。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
China has always upheld the constitutional principle of equality between men and women, which is also a basic state policy for promoting progress in the country and in society. Over the years China has progressively improved its laws and regulations, developed public policies, worked out development plans and pressed forward steadily with gender equality and women's development.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

今年是联合国第四次世界妇女大会在北京召开20周年,中国政府特发表白皮书,全面介绍中国推动性别平等与妇女发展的政策措施和所做的不懈努力。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
Twenty years ago, the UN's Fourth World Conference on Women was held in Beijing. On its anniversary two decades later, the Chinese government is publishing this white paper to provide a comprehensive overview of China's policies on gender equality and women's development, as well as unremitting efforts made and measures implemented in this regard.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

中国妇女占世界妇女人口的五分之一。中国性别平等与妇女发展既体现了中国的文明进步,也是对全球平等、发展与和平的历史贡献。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
Chinese women make up one fifth of the world's total female population. Gender equality and women's development in China not only give expression to China's own progress, but also constitute a historical contribution made to global equality, development and peace.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

一、性别平等与妇女发展的机制保障IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
I. The Institutional Foundation for Gender Equality and Women's Development
IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

国家建立提高妇女地位的机制,是充分利用政府资源,有效调动社会资源,推进性别平等与妇女发展的重要保障。20年来,中国提高妇女地位的机制不断健全,作用日益凸显。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
China's national mechanism for promoting the status of women, fully utilizing government resources and effectively mobilizing social resources, lays an important foundation for promoting gender equality and women's development. Over the past two decades, the mechanism has been constantly improved to allow it to play an increasingly prominent role.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

不断完善提高妇女地位的政府工作机构。1990年,中国成立了国务院妇女儿童工作委员会,负责组织、协调、指导、督促有关部门,共同促进性别平等与妇女发展。国务院妇女儿童工作委员会由相关政府部门部级领导组成,主任由国务院领导担任。20年来,成员单位从成立初的19个增至目前的35个,包括国家发展改革委、教育部、民政部、财政部、人力资源社会保障部、农业部、国家卫生计生委等29个部门和6个群体组织。国务院妇女儿童工作委员会下设办公室负责日常工作,配有专职工作人员和专项工作经费。全国31个省(区、市)县级以上人民政府均成立了相应机构,基本形成了纵向贯通、横向联动、协同配合的促进性别平等与妇女发展组织体系。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
The state has kept improving government organs for promoting the status of women. In 1990, the State Council established the National Working Committee on Children and Women (NWCCW), which has been commissioned the responsibilities to organize, coordinate, guide, supervise and urge departments concerned in promoting gender equality and women's development. Composed of leading ministerial-level members from relevant government organs, the Committee is chaired by a member of the State Council leadership. Over the previous 20 years, the Committee has expanded its member units from 19 to 35, now including government organs such as the National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Civil Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, Ministry of Agriculture, and the National Health and Family Planning Commission, in addition to six mass organizations. The Committee has a general office doing day-to-day work by full-time staff with specially allocated funds. Relevant organizations have been set up under people's governments above the county level in 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government, forming a multi-dimensional and well-coordinated network for promoting gender equality and women's development.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

制定实施促进妇女发展的国家规划纲要。第十、第十一和第十二个国民经济和社会发展五年规划都将妇女发展列入其中,内容不断丰富,目标更加明确,措施更加有效,推动妇女与经济社会同步协调发展。国务院先后颁布三个周期的中国妇女发展纲要,明确各阶段妇女发展的总体目标、重点领域及策略措施,全国31个省(区、市)县级以上人民政府分别制定本地区妇女发展规划,形成了全国自上而下促进妇女发展的规划体系。各级妇女儿童工作委员会分别建立目标管理责任制,将主要目标分解到相关职能部门,并纳入相关专项规划加以落实;建立纲要评估机制,对纲要落实情况进行年度监测评估、中期督导评估和终期总结评估,确保纲要规划目标如期实现。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
The state has developed and implemented national plans and programs for promoting women's development. Women's development was included in China's 10th, 11th and 12th five-year plans for economic and social development, each time with greater emphasis, clearer goals, and more effective measures for promoting coordinated development between Chinese women and China's economy and society. The State Council has issued three programs covering different periods for the development of Chinese women, clearly defining the overall goals, key areas and policies and measures to be adopted for women's development at different stages. People's governments at and above the county level in the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities have worked out similar programs for women's development for areas within their respective jurisdiction, thus forming a top-down framework for promoting women's development at all levels. Adopting the target management responsibility system, the working committees on children and women at various levels resolve and allocate the main targets to the related functional departments of the governments and see to it that they are included in corresponding plans and implemented. They also established an appraisal system and carried out assessments of the implementation results of the programs at the end of every year, and in the middle and at the end of the implementation of the programs, ensuring that the targets set in these programs were met as scheduled.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

建立健全政府主导、多部门合作、全社会参与的工作机制。国务院和地方各级政府定期召开妇女儿童工作会议,进行专题研究部署。国务院和地方妇女儿童工作委员会每年召开专题会议,听取成员单位的工作汇报,对妇女发展纲要规划的实施情况进行分析,针对突出问题,研究制定策略措施,推动纲要顺利实施。引导各地积极探索建立法规政策性别平等评估机制,为从源头促进性别平等与妇女发展提供坚实的机制保障。国家重视和支持妇联组织代表和维护妇女权益、促进性别平等。当前,具有中国特色的妇联组织体系更加完善,在性别平等的理论研究、宣传倡导、教育培训等方面作用日益突出。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
The state has established a working mechanism featuring leadership by the government, multi-departmental cooperation and participation of the whole of society. The State Council and local governments at various levels hold working meetings on children and women on a regular basis to discuss and make plans. Every year, the State Council and local working committees on children and women hold special meetings to hear reports from all their member units, analyze progress made in the implementation of the current program for women's development, and work out measures to address matters of pressing concern for the smooth implementation of the program. Guidance has been given to local governments in actively exploring the establishment of an assessment system of laws and policies related to gender equality, so as to provide at the source a solid institutional guarantee for promoting gender equality and women's development. The state supports the women's federation organizations in representing and safeguarding women's rights and promoting gender equality. As the organizational system of women's federations is better established, it has been playing an increasingly prominent role in conducting theoretical studies and carrying out publicity, education and training programs in relation to gender equality.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

逐步完善性别统计制度。建立妇女发展综合统计制度,将其纳入国家和部门常规统计或统计调查,规范和完善妇女生存发展统计指标和分性别统计指标。逐步建立国家和省(区、市)妇女状况监测体系,制定统计监测指标体系,建立各地区各部门综合统计报表和定期报送审评制度。1990年、2000年、2010年开展三期中国妇女社会地位调查,全面客观反映中国妇女社会地位的状况和变化,为国家制定促进妇女发展、推动性别平等政策措施提供依据。1995年、1999年、2004年、2007年和2012年,分别出版《中国社会中的女人和男人——事实和数据》;2008年起,每年出版《中国妇女儿童状况统计资料》。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
The state has gradually improved the gender statistics system. A comprehensive statistics system has been established on women's development and it has been included in the routine statistics and statistical surveys undertaken by the state and relevant departments, and women's health, well-being and development indicators and gender-disaggregated indicators have been standardized and improved. The state has gradually established a monitoring system for women's conditions at the national and provincial (autonomous region, municipal) levels, worked out a statistical monitoring and indicator system, and established a system in which local governments and relevant departments produce comprehensive statistical reports and submit reports for review on a regular basis. In 1990, 2000 and 2010, China carried out three surveys, which fully and objectively reflected the conditions and changes in Chinese women's social status, providing valuable reference for the government to formulate policies and measures to promote women's development and gender equality. The state published Women and Men in Chinese Society - Facts and Statistics in 1995, and updated it with new data in 1999, 2004, 2007 and 2012; and has published annual releases of Statistics on the Status of Chinese Women and Children since 2008.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

二、妇女与经济IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
II. Women and the Economy
IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

平等参与经济活动和公平享有经济资源是妇女生存发展的基本条件。中国在推进经济结构战略性调整和转变经济发展方式的改革创新中,充分保障妇女经济权益,促进妇女平等参与经济发展、平等享有改革发展成果。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
Equal participation in economic activities and equitable access to economic resources are the basic conditions for the well-being and development of women. While pressing forward with a strategic adjustment of its economic structure and reform and innovation of its growth model, China fully protects the economic interests of women, promoting women's equal participation in economic development and equal access to the fruits of reform and development.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

妇女贫困状况显著改善。中国在实施全方位扶贫战略中,统筹考虑城镇化、老龄化、市场化及气候变化等因素对妇女贫困的影响,加大妇女扶贫脱贫力度。实施中国农村扶贫开发纲要,将妇女作为重点扶贫群体,同等条件下优先安排妇女扶贫项目,不断提升贫困妇女的发展能力和受益水平。贫困妇女数量大幅减少,妇女贫困程度不断降低。在592个国家扶贫开发工作重点县,女性人口的贫困发生率从2005年的20.3%下降到2010年的9.8%。建立完善新型社会救助体系,加大对贫困妇女的保障力度。2014年,妇女享受城乡居民最低生活保障的人数分别为792万人和1826万人,比2006年分别增加了200万人和1591万人。积极开展“贫困母亲两癌救助”“母亲安居工程”“母亲健康快车”等公益慈善项目,帮助患病贫困妇女、贫困单亲母亲改善生存与发展状况。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
Significant progress has been made in alleviating poverty among women. During the implementation of comprehensive poverty reduction strategies, China has given overall consideration to the impact of urbanization, aging, climate change and other social and market factors on poverty among women, and strengthened efforts to address such poverty. China has implemented a program for poverty alleviation through development in rural areas, making women a key focus of attention and giving priority to poverty alleviation projects for women when all other conditions are equal, striving to improve the development capacity of women and bringing more benefits to them as a group. The number of impoverished women has dropped by an enormous margin, and the severity of poverty of women has been continuously alleviated. In the 592 poorest counties which are made the main targets of national poverty alleviation and development work, the poverty rate of the female population decreased from 20.3 percent in 2005 to 9.8 percent in 2010. The state has established a new-model social relief system, increasing efforts to protect impoverished women. In 2014, the numbers of women covered by subsistence allowances for urban and rural residents were 7.92 million and 18.26 million respectively, increasing by 2 million and 15.91 million, as compared to 2006. The state has actively implemented a number of public welfare and charity programs for impoverished mothers, such as the program of relief for mothers suffering from breast cancer and cervical cancer, the comfortable housing project for impoverished rural single mothers, and the mother health express program, bringing help to sick women, poor single mothers and various other groups of mothers in need.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

保障妇女的平等就业权利。就业是民生之本。国家制定和完善法律法规,促进公平就业,消除就业性别歧视。《中华人民共和国就业促进法》专设“公平就业”一章,强调男女平等就业权利。《中华人民共和国劳动合同法》对企业订立女职工权益保护专项集体合同作出明确规定,为保障女职工合法权益提供了法律依据。制定、修订和实施《女职工劳动保护特别规定》、机关事业单位处级干部和高级职称专业技术人员男女同龄退休、支持女性科技人才成长及促进女大学生平等就业等一系列法规、政策及措施,为妇女就业和职业发展创造有利条件。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
The state ensures equal employment right for women. Employment has a vital bearing on people's quality of life. The state has promulgated and improved laws and regulations to promote fair employment and eliminate gender discrimination in employment. The Employment Promotion Law of the People's Republic of China has a chapter specially dealing with fair employment, emphasizing gender equality in employment right. The Labor Contract Law of the People's Republic of China has clear provisions under which businesses are required to create collective contracts for protecting female workers'rights and interests, providing a legal basis for protecting the legitimate rights and interests of female workers. To create favorable conditions for women's employment and career development, the state has also developed, amended and implemented the Special Regulations on Labor Protection of Female Employees, along with policies that enable women in positions as middle-ranking officials, senior professionals and technicians at state organs and public institutions to retire at the same age as their male counterparts, and policies to facilitate the growth of female scientists and promote equal employment opportunities for female college graduates.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

促进妇女就业创业。国家针对不同妇女群体就业创业中面临的困难,出台支持性政策措施。实施鼓励妇女就业创业的小额担保贷款财政贴息政策,2009年以来向妇女发放小额贴息贷款2220.6亿元人民币,扶植和带动千万妇女创业就业。大力发展家政服务和手工编织等行业,为城乡妇女就地就近和转移就业提供服务。开展女大学生就业创业扶持行动,为女大学生提供就业培训、创业指导、见习岗位。实施“阳光工程”,提高农村女性劳动力素质和就业技能,为促进农村女性劳动力向非农产业和城镇转移创造条件。全国共建立20多万所“妇女学校”,近2亿人次妇女参加农业新技术、新品种培训,150万名妇女获得农业技术员职称和绿色证书,创办5.3万个妇女专业合作组织。自2011年启动“城镇百万残疾人就业工程”以来,每年新增残疾妇女就业约10万人。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
The state helps women who are seeking employment and starting businesses. The state has introduced supportive policies and measures to address the difficulties of women in seeking employment and starting businesses. To engage women in employment and entrepreneurship, the state has introduced the small-sum guaranteed loan with financial discount. Since 2009, a total of 222.06 billion yuan has been issued in small discount loans to women, helping millions of women with their new businesses and careers. The state vigorously promotes the development of housekeeping services in urban areas and handicrafts, such as weaving and knitting, in rural areas, in order that women in cities and countryside can find employment locally and close to their homes, and also to promote employment transfer. It supports female college graduates in seeking employment and starting businesses, providing training in employment, guidance in starting businesses and internship opportunities, and it has implemented the Sunshine Project, improving the quality and skills of the rural female workforce and creating conditions to promote the transfer of rural female workforce to non-agricultural sectors and urban areas. There are now more than 200,000 training schools for women nationwide, providing training sessions to a total of nearly 200 million women in new agricultural technologies and new crop species. A total of 1.5 million women have obtained titles and qualifications as agricultural technicians, and 53,000 women's professional cooperatives have been founded. Following the launch of an employment promotion project for the disabled in urban areas in 2011, about 100,000 disabled women have joined the workforce each year.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

妇女就业结构不断改善。2013年,全国女性就业人数为34640万,占就业总数的45%。最新一期中国妇女社会地位调查显示,妇女从事第二、第三产业的比例比10年前提高了25个百分点,各类负责人、专业技术人员、办事人员及有关人员所占比例较10年前提高了13个百分点。2013年女性中高级专业技术人员达到661万人,占中高级专业技术人员的44.1%,比2000年提高了9个百分点。中国女企业家群体不断壮大,女企业家约占企业家总数的四分之一。实施“创业创新巾帼行动”,促进女性在新兴产业就业,互联网领域创业者中女性占55%。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
The state improves the employment structure for women. In 2013, the total number of women employed nationwide was 346.4 million, accounting for 45 percent of the total employed population. The latest survey of the social status of Chinese women shows that women in secondary and tertiary industries grew by 25 percentage points in comparison with 10 years ago, and that female heads of various departments, professional and technical personnel, and clerical and related personnel increased by 13 percentage points. In 2013, the number of middle-ranking and senior female professional and technical personnel reached 6.61 million, or 44.1 percent of the total in this category, an increase of 9 percentage points from that of 2000. The number of female entrepreneurs keeps growing, now accounting for one quarter of the total number of entrepreneurs in China. The government has initiated an action plan to promote entrepreneurship and innovation among women, encouraging women to seek employment in emerging industries. About 55 percent of new Internet businesses are being founded by women.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

保障农村妇女的土地权益。中国是一个农业大国,农村妇女约占农业劳动力的70%。在全面深化农村改革和推进基层依法自治的过程中,国家落实和完善保障农村妇女土地权益的法律政策,建立健全农村集体资金、资产、资源管理等各项制度,纠正与法律政策规定、性别平等原则相冲突的村规民约,确保农村妇女平等享有土地承包经营权、宅基地使用权和集体收益分配权。在土地承包经营权确权登记颁证工作中,明确登记簿和确权证上应体现妇女的土地权益,从源头上保障农村妇女的生存发展资源。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
The state protects the rights and interests of rural women in relation to land. China is a large agricultural country, and women living in rural areas account for about 70 percent of the total agricultural labor force. While forging ahead with deeper all-round reform and promoting village-level self-government in rural areas, the state has implemented and improved laws and policies on protecting the land rights of women in rural areas, established various systems for managing rural collective funds, assets and resources, corrected any village regulations and folk conventions for villagers that are in conflict with statutory regulations and the principle of gender equality, so as to ensure that women in rural areas enjoy equal rights of land contract and management, use of homesteads and distribution of collective income. In the verification, registration and certification of land contract and management rights, it is clearly ruled that women's rights and interests in relation to land must be given expression to in the registration book and land right certificate, so that women in rural areas are ensured access to the resources necessary for survival and development at source.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

提高妇女社会保障水平。《中华人民共和国社会保险法》把生育保险作为独立章节,明确规定妇女平等享有社会保障的权利。《中国妇女发展纲要(2011-2020年)》增设“妇女与社会保障”领域,提出妇女平等享有社会保险、社会救济、社会福利和社会救助的主要目标和策略措施。妇女参加养老保险、医疗保险、失业保险、工伤保险和生育保险人数不断增加。2013年,妇女参加城镇职工养老保险、城镇职工医疗保险的人数分别达到14612万和12657万,比2005年分别增加了6743万和7282万;妇女参加生育保险人数达到7117万,比2005年增加了4844万。2012年4月《女职工劳动保护特别规定》颁布实施,法定产假时间由原来的90天延长到98天,妇女享有生育保障的待遇不断提高。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
The state improves the level of social security for women. The Social Insurance Law of the People's Republic of China has a separate chapter for maternity insurance, clearly stipulating that women equally enjoy social security rights. In the Program for the Development of Chinese Women (2011-2020), a section titled "Women and Social Security" was added, defining the main goals, policies, and measures to enable women to enjoy equal access to social insurance, relief, welfare and assistance. The number of women participating in old-age insurance, medical insurance, unemployment insurance, industrial injury insurance, and maternity insurance keeps rising. In 2013, the numbers of women covered by old-age insurance and medical insurance for urban workers reached 146.12 million and 126.57 million, growing by 67.43 million and 72.82 million as compared to the figures in 2005, and the number of women participating in maternity insurance reached 71.17 million, an increase of 48.44 million as compared with 2005. In April 2012, the Special Regulations on Labor Protection for Female Employees was promulgated and put into effect, extending statutory maternity leave from 90 days to 98 days and increasing the level of maternity protection for women.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

二、妇女与经济IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
II. Women and the Economy
IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

平等参与经济活动和公平享有经济资源是妇女生存发展的基本条件。中国在推进经济结构战略性调整和转变经济发展方式的改革创新中,充分保障妇女经济权益,促进妇女平等参与经济发展、平等享有改革发展成果。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
Equal participation in economic activities and equitable access to economic resources are the basic conditions for the well-being and development of women. While pressing forward with a strategic adjustment of its economic structure and reform and innovation of its growth model, China fully protects the economic interests of women, promoting women's equal participation in economic development and equal access to the fruits of reform and development.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

妇女贫困状况显著改善。中国在实施全方位扶贫战略中,统筹考虑城镇化、老龄化、市场化及气候变化等因素对妇女贫困的影响,加大妇女扶贫脱贫力度。实施中国农村扶贫开发纲要,将妇女作为重点扶贫群体,同等条件下优先安排妇女扶贫项目,不断提升贫困妇女的发展能力和受益水平。贫困妇女数量大幅减少,妇女贫困程度不断降低。在592个国家扶贫开发工作重点县,女性人口的贫困发生率从2005年的20.3%下降到2010年的9.8%。建立完善新型社会救助体系,加大对贫困妇女的保障力度。2014年,妇女享受城乡居民最低生活保障的人数分别为792万人和1826万人,比2006年分别增加了200万人和1591万人。积极开展“贫困母亲两癌救助”“母亲安居工程”“母亲健康快车”等公益慈善项目,帮助患病贫困妇女、贫困单亲母亲改善生存与发展状况。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
Significant progress has been made in alleviating poverty among women. During the implementation of comprehensive poverty reduction strategies, China has given overall consideration to the impact of urbanization, aging, climate change and other social and market factors on poverty among women, and strengthened efforts to address such poverty. China has implemented a program for poverty alleviation through development in rural areas, making women a key focus of attention and giving priority to poverty alleviation projects for women when all other conditions are equal, striving to improve the development capacity of women and bringing more benefits to them as a group. The number of impoverished women has dropped by an enormous margin, and the severity of poverty of women has been continuously alleviated. In the 592 poorest counties which are made the main targets of national poverty alleviation and development work, the poverty rate of the female population decreased from 20.3 percent in 2005 to 9.8 percent in 2010. The state has established a new-model social relief system, increasing efforts to protect impoverished women. In 2014, the numbers of women covered by subsistence allowances for urban and rural residents were 7.92 million and 18.26 million respectively, increasing by 2 million and 15.91 million, as compared to 2006. The state has actively implemented a number of public welfare and charity programs for impoverished mothers, such as the program of relief for mothers suffering from breast cancer and cervical cancer, the comfortable housing project for impoverished rural single mothers, and the mother health express program, bringing help to sick women, poor single mothers and various other groups of mothers in need.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

保障妇女的平等就业权利。就业是民生之本。国家制定和完善法律法规,促进公平就业,消除就业性别歧视。《中华人民共和国就业促进法》专设“公平就业”一章,强调男女平等就业权利。《中华人民共和国劳动合同法》对企业订立女职工权益保护专项集体合同作出明确规定,为保障女职工合法权益提供了法律依据。制定、修订和实施《女职工劳动保护特别规定》、机关事业单位处级干部和高级职称专业技术人员男女同龄退休、支持女性科技人才成长及促进女大学生平等就业等一系列法规、政策及措施,为妇女就业和职业发展创造有利条件。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
The state ensures equal employment right for women. Employment has a vital bearing on people's quality of life. The state has promulgated and improved laws and regulations to promote fair employment and eliminate gender discrimination in employment. The Employment Promotion Law of the People's Republic of China has a chapter specially dealing with fair employment, emphasizing gender equality in employment right. The Labor Contract Law of the People's Republic of China has clear provisions under which businesses are required to create collective contracts for protecting female workers'rights and interests, providing a legal basis for protecting the legitimate rights and interests of female workers. To create favorable conditions for women's employment and career development, the state has also developed, amended and implemented the Special Regulations on Labor Protection of Female Employees, along with policies that enable women in positions as middle-ranking officials, senior professionals and technicians at state organs and public institutions to retire at the same age as their male counterparts, and policies to facilitate the growth of female scientists and promote equal employment opportunities for female college graduates.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

促进妇女就业创业。国家针对不同妇女群体就业创业中面临的困难,出台支持性政策措施。实施鼓励妇女就业创业的小额担保贷款财政贴息政策,2009年以来向妇女发放小额贴息贷款2220.6亿元人民币,扶植和带动千万妇女创业就业。大力发展家政服务和手工编织等行业,为城乡妇女就地就近和转移就业提供服务。开展女大学生就业创业扶持行动,为女大学生提供就业培训、创业指导、见习岗位。实施“阳光工程”,提高农村女性劳动力素质和就业技能,为促进农村女性劳动力向非农产业和城镇转移创造条件。全国共建立20多万所“妇女学校”,近2亿人次妇女参加农业新技术、新品种培训,150万名妇女获得农业技术员职称和绿色证书,创办5.3万个妇女专业合作组织。自2011年启动“城镇百万残疾人就业工程”以来,每年新增残疾妇女就业约10万人。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
The state helps women who are seeking employment and starting businesses. The state has introduced supportive policies and measures to address the difficulties of women in seeking employment and starting businesses. To engage women in employment and entrepreneurship, the state has introduced the small-sum guaranteed loan with financial discount. Since 2009, a total of 222.06 billion yuan has been issued in small discount loans to women, helping millions of women with their new businesses and careers. The state vigorously promotes the development of housekeeping services in urban areas and handicrafts, such as weaving and knitting, in rural areas, in order that women in cities and countryside can find employment locally and close to their homes, and also to promote employment transfer. It supports female college graduates in seeking employment and starting businesses, providing training in employment, guidance in starting businesses and internship opportunities, and it has implemented the Sunshine Project, improving the quality and skills of the rural female workforce and creating conditions to promote the transfer of rural female workforce to non-agricultural sectors and urban areas. There are now more than 200,000 training schools for women nationwide, providing training sessions to a total of nearly 200 million women in new agricultural technologies and new crop species. A total of 1.5 million women have obtained titles and qualifications as agricultural technicians, and 53,000 women's professional cooperatives have been founded. Following the launch of an employment promotion project for the disabled in urban areas in 2011, about 100,000 disabled women have joined the workforce each year.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

妇女就业结构不断改善。2013年,全国女性就业人数为34640万,占就业总数的45%。最新一期中国妇女社会地位调查显示,妇女从事第二、第三产业的比例比10年前提高了25个百分点,各类负责人、专业技术人员、办事人员及有关人员所占比例较10年前提高了13个百分点。2013年女性中高级专业技术人员达到661万人,占中高级专业技术人员的44.1%,比2000年提高了9个百分点。中国女企业家群体不断壮大,女企业家约占企业家总数的四分之一。实施“创业创新巾帼行动”,促进女性在新兴产业就业,互联网领域创业者中女性占55%。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
The state improves the employment structure for women. In 2013, the total number of women employed nationwide was 346.4 million, accounting for 45 percent of the total employed population. The latest survey of the social status of Chinese women shows that women in secondary and tertiary industries grew by 25 percentage points in comparison with 10 years ago, and that female heads of various departments, professional and technical personnel, and clerical and related personnel increased by 13 percentage points. In 2013, the number of middle-ranking and senior female professional and technical personnel reached 6.61 million, or 44.1 percent of the total in this category, an increase of 9 percentage points from that of 2000. The number of female entrepreneurs keeps growing, now accounting for one quarter of the total number of entrepreneurs in China. The government has initiated an action plan to promote entrepreneurship and innovation among women, encouraging women to seek employment in emerging industries. About 55 percent of new Internet businesses are being founded by women.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

保障农村妇女的土地权益。中国是一个农业大国,农村妇女约占农业劳动力的70%。在全面深化农村改革和推进基层依法自治的过程中,国家落实和完善保障农村妇女土地权益的法律政策,建立健全农村集体资金、资产、资源管理等各项制度,纠正与法律政策规定、性别平等原则相冲突的村规民约,确保农村妇女平等享有土地承包经营权、宅基地使用权和集体收益分配权。在土地承包经营权确权登记颁证工作中,明确登记簿和确权证上应体现妇女的土地权益,从源头上保障农村妇女的生存发展资源。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
The state protects the rights and interests of rural women in relation to land. China is a large agricultural country, and women living in rural areas account for about 70 percent of the total agricultural labor force. While forging ahead with deeper all-round reform and promoting village-level self-government in rural areas, the state has implemented and improved laws and policies on protecting the land rights of women in rural areas, established various systems for managing rural collective funds, assets and resources, corrected any village regulations and folk conventions for villagers that are in conflict with statutory regulations and the principle of gender equality, so as to ensure that women in rural areas enjoy equal rights of land contract and management, use of homesteads and distribution of collective income. In the verification, registration and certification of land contract and management rights, it is clearly ruled that women's rights and interests in relation to land must be given expression to in the registration book and land right certificate, so that women in rural areas are ensured access to the resources necessary for survival and development at source.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

提高妇女社会保障水平。《中华人民共和国社会保险法》把生育保险作为独立章节,明确规定妇女平等享有社会保障的权利。《中国妇女发展纲要(2011-2020年)》增设“妇女与社会保障”领域,提出妇女平等享有社会保险、社会救济、社会福利和社会救助的主要目标和策略措施。妇女参加养老保险、医疗保险、失业保险、工伤保险和生育保险人数不断增加。2013年,妇女参加城镇职工养老保险、城镇职工医疗保险的人数分别达到14612万和12657万,比2005年分别增加了6743万和7282万;妇女参加生育保险人数达到7117万,比2005年增加了4844万。2012年4月《女职工劳动保护特别规定》颁布实施,法定产假时间由原来的90天延长到98天,妇女享有生育保障的待遇不断提高。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
The state improves the level of social security for women. The Social Insurance Law of the People's Republic of China has a separate chapter for maternity insurance, clearly stipulating that women equally enjoy social security rights. In the Program for the Development of Chinese Women (2011-2020), a section titled "Women and Social Security" was added, defining the main goals, policies, and measures to enable women to enjoy equal access to social insurance, relief, welfare and assistance. The number of women participating in old-age insurance, medical insurance, unemployment insurance, industrial injury insurance, and maternity insurance keeps rising. In 2013, the numbers of women covered by old-age insurance and medical insurance for urban workers reached 146.12 million and 126.57 million, growing by 67.43 million and 72.82 million as compared to the figures in 2005, and the number of women participating in maternity insurance reached 71.17 million, an increase of 48.44 million as compared with 2005. In April 2012, the Special Regulations on Labor Protection for Female Employees was promulgated and put into effect, extending statutory maternity leave from 90 days to 98 days and increasing the level of maternity protection for women.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

 IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

二、妇女与经济IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
II. Women and the Economy
IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

平等参与经济活动和公平享有经济资源是妇女生存发展的基本条件。中国在推进经济结构战略性调整和转变经济发展方式的改革创新中,充分保障妇女经济权益,促进妇女平等参与经济发展、平等享有改革发展成果。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
Equal participation in economic activities and equitable access to economic resources are the basic conditions for the well-being and development of women. While pressing forward with a strategic adjustment of its economic structure and reform and innovation of its growth model, China fully protects the economic interests of women, promoting women's equal participation in economic development and equal access to the fruits of reform and development.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

妇女贫困状况显著改善。中国在实施全方位扶贫战略中,统筹考虑城镇化、老龄化、市场化及气候变化等因素对妇女贫困的影响,加大妇女扶贫脱贫力度。实施中国农村扶贫开发纲要,将妇女作为重点扶贫群体,同等条件下优先安排妇女扶贫项目,不断提升贫困妇女的发展能力和受益水平。贫困妇女数量大幅减少,妇女贫困程度不断降低。在592个国家扶贫开发工作重点县,女性人口的贫困发生率从2005年的20.3%下降到2010年的9.8%。建立完善新型社会救助体系,加大对贫困妇女的保障力度。2014年,妇女享受城乡居民最低生活保障的人数分别为792万人和1826万人,比2006年分别增加了200万人和1591万人。积极开展“贫困母亲两癌救助”“母亲安居工程”“母亲健康快车”等公益慈善项目,帮助患病贫困妇女、贫困单亲母亲改善生存与发展状况。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
Significant progress has been made in alleviating poverty among women. During the implementation of comprehensive poverty reduction strategies, China has given overall consideration to the impact of urbanization, aging, climate change and other social and market factors on poverty among women, and strengthened efforts to address such poverty. China has implemented a program for poverty alleviation through development in rural areas, making women a key focus of attention and giving priority to poverty alleviation projects for women when all other conditions are equal, striving to improve the development capacity of women and bringing more benefits to them as a group. The number of impoverished women has dropped by an enormous margin, and the severity of poverty of women has been continuously alleviated. In the 592 poorest counties which are made the main targets of national poverty alleviation and development work, the poverty rate of the female population decreased from 20.3 percent in 2005 to 9.8 percent in 2010. The state has established a new-model social relief system, increasing efforts to protect impoverished women. In 2014, the numbers of women covered by subsistence allowances for urban and rural residents were 7.92 million and 18.26 million respectively, increasing by 2 million and 15.91 million, as compared to 2006. The state has actively implemented a number of public welfare and charity programs for impoverished mothers, such as the program of relief for mothers suffering from breast cancer and cervical cancer, the comfortable housing project for impoverished rural single mothers, and the mother health express program, bringing help to sick women, poor single mothers and various other groups of mothers in need.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

保障妇女的平等就业权利。就业是民生之本。国家制定和完善法律法规,促进公平就业,消除就业性别歧视。《中华人民共和国就业促进法》专设“公平就业”一章,强调男女平等就业权利。《中华人民共和国劳动合同法》对企业订立女职工权益保护专项集体合同作出明确规定,为保障女职工合法权益提供了法律依据。制定、修订和实施《女职工劳动保护特别规定》、机关事业单位处级干部和高级职称专业技术人员男女同龄退休、支持女性科技人才成长及促进女大学生平等就业等一系列法规、政策及措施,为妇女就业和职业发展创造有利条件。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
The state ensures equal employment right for women. Employment has a vital bearing on people's quality of life. The state has promulgated and improved laws and regulations to promote fair employment and eliminate gender discrimination in employment. The Employment Promotion Law of the People's Republic of China has a chapter specially dealing with fair employment, emphasizing gender equality in employment right. The Labor Contract Law of the People's Republic of China has clear provisions under which businesses are required to create collective contracts for protecting female workers'rights and interests, providing a legal basis for protecting the legitimate rights and interests of female workers. To create favorable conditions for women's employment and career development, the state has also developed, amended and implemented the Special Regulations on Labor Protection of Female Employees, along with policies that enable women in positions as middle-ranking officials, senior professionals and technicians at state organs and public institutions to retire at the same age as their male counterparts, and policies to facilitate the growth of female scientists and promote equal employment opportunities for female college graduates.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

促进妇女就业创业。国家针对不同妇女群体就业创业中面临的困难,出台支持性政策措施。实施鼓励妇女就业创业的小额担保贷款财政贴息政策,2009年以来向妇女发放小额贴息贷款2220.6亿元人民币,扶植和带动千万妇女创业就业。大力发展家政服务和手工编织等行业,为城乡妇女就地就近和转移就业提供服务。开展女大学生就业创业扶持行动,为女大学生提供就业培训、创业指导、见习岗位。实施“阳光工程”,提高农村女性劳动力素质和就业技能,为促进农村女性劳动力向非农产业和城镇转移创造条件。全国共建立20多万所“妇女学校”,近2亿人次妇女参加农业新技术、新品种培训,150万名妇女获得农业技术员职称和绿色证书,创办5.3万个妇女专业合作组织。自2011年启动“城镇百万残疾人就业工程”以来,每年新增残疾妇女就业约10万人。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
The state helps women who are seeking employment and starting businesses. The state has introduced supportive policies and measures to address the difficulties of women in seeking employment and starting businesses. To engage women in employment and entrepreneurship, the state has introduced the small-sum guaranteed loan with financial discount. Since 2009, a total of 222.06 billion yuan has been issued in small discount loans to women, helping millions of women with their new businesses and careers. The state vigorously promotes the development of housekeeping services in urban areas and handicrafts, such as weaving and knitting, in rural areas, in order that women in cities and countryside can find employment locally and close to their homes, and also to promote employment transfer. It supports female college graduates in seeking employment and starting businesses, providing training in employment, guidance in starting businesses and internship opportunities, and it has implemented the Sunshine Project, improving the quality and skills of the rural female workforce and creating conditions to promote the transfer of rural female workforce to non-agricultural sectors and urban areas. There are now more than 200,000 training schools for women nationwide, providing training sessions to a total of nearly 200 million women in new agricultural technologies and new crop species. A total of 1.5 million women have obtained titles and qualifications as agricultural technicians, and 53,000 women's professional cooperatives have been founded. Following the launch of an employment promotion project for the disabled in urban areas in 2011, about 100,000 disabled women have joined the workforce each year.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

妇女就业结构不断改善。2013年,全国女性就业人数为34640万,占就业总数的45%。最新一期中国妇女社会地位调查显示,妇女从事第二、第三产业的比例比10年前提高了25个百分点,各类负责人、专业技术人员、办事人员及有关人员所占比例较10年前提高了13个百分点。2013年女性中高级专业技术人员达到661万人,占中高级专业技术人员的44.1%,比2000年提高了9个百分点。中国女企业家群体不断壮大,女企业家约占企业家总数的四分之一。实施“创业创新巾帼行动”,促进女性在新兴产业就业,互联网领域创业者中女性占55%。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
The state improves the employment structure for women. In 2013, the total number of women employed nationwide was 346.4 million, accounting for 45 percent of the total employed population. The latest survey of the social status of Chinese women shows that women in secondary and tertiary industries grew by 25 percentage points in comparison with 10 years ago, and that female heads of various departments, professional and technical personnel, and clerical and related personnel increased by 13 percentage points. In 2013, the number of middle-ranking and senior female professional and technical personnel reached 6.61 million, or 44.1 percent of the total in this category, an increase of 9 percentage points from that of 2000. The number of female entrepreneurs keeps growing, now accounting for one quarter of the total number of entrepreneurs in China. The government has initiated an action plan to promote entrepreneurship and innovation among women, encouraging women to seek employment in emerging industries. About 55 percent of new Internet businesses are being founded by women.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

保障农村妇女的土地权益。中国是一个农业大国,农村妇女约占农业劳动力的70%。在全面深化农村改革和推进基层依法自治的过程中,国家落实和完善保障农村妇女土地权益的法律政策,建立健全农村集体资金、资产、资源管理等各项制度,纠正与法律政策规定、性别平等原则相冲突的村规民约,确保农村妇女平等享有土地承包经营权、宅基地使用权和集体收益分配权。在土地承包经营权确权登记颁证工作中,明确登记簿和确权证上应体现妇女的土地权益,从源头上保障农村妇女的生存发展资源。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
The state protects the rights and interests of rural women in relation to land. China is a large agricultural country, and women living in rural areas account for about 70 percent of the total agricultural labor force. While forging ahead with deeper all-round reform and promoting village-level self-government in rural areas, the state has implemented and improved laws and policies on protecting the land rights of women in rural areas, established various systems for managing rural collective funds, assets and resources, corrected any village regulations and folk conventions for villagers that are in conflict with statutory regulations and the principle of gender equality, so as to ensure that women in rural areas enjoy equal rights of land contract and management, use of homesteads and distribution of collective income. In the verification, registration and certification of land contract and management rights, it is clearly ruled that women's rights and interests in relation to land must be given expression to in the registration book and land right certificate, so that women in rural areas are ensured access to the resources necessary for survival and development at source.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

提高妇女社会保障水平。《中华人民共和国社会保险法》把生育保险作为独立章节,明确规定妇女平等享有社会保障的权利。《中国妇女发展纲要(2011-2020年)》增设“妇女与社会保障”领域,提出妇女平等享有社会保险、社会救济、社会福利和社会救助的主要目标和策略措施。妇女参加养老保险、医疗保险、失业保险、工伤保险和生育保险人数不断增加。2013年,妇女参加城镇职工养老保险、城镇职工医疗保险的人数分别达到14612万和12657万,比2005年分别增加了6743万和7282万;妇女参加生育保险人数达到7117万,比2005年增加了4844万。2012年4月《女职工劳动保护特别规定》颁布实施,法定产假时间由原来的90天延长到98天,妇女享有生育保障的待遇不断提高。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
The state improves the level of social security for women. The Social Insurance Law of the People's Republic of China has a separate chapter for maternity insurance, clearly stipulating that women equally enjoy social security rights. In the Program for the Development of Chinese Women (2011-2020), a section titled "Women and Social Security" was added, defining the main goals, policies, and measures to enable women to enjoy equal access to social insurance, relief, welfare and assistance. The number of women participating in old-age insurance, medical insurance, unemployment insurance, industrial injury insurance, and maternity insurance keeps rising. In 2013, the numbers of women covered by old-age insurance and medical insurance for urban workers reached 146.12 million and 126.57 million, growing by 67.43 million and 72.82 million as compared to the figures in 2005, and the number of women participating in maternity insurance reached 71.17 million, an increase of 48.44 million as compared with 2005. In April 2012, the Special Regulations on Labor Protection for Female Employees was promulgated and put into effect, extending statutory maternity leave from 90 days to 98 days and increasing the level of maternity protection for women.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

 IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

二、妇女与经济IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
II. Women and the Economy
IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

平等参与经济活动和公平享有经济资源是妇女生存发展的基本条件。中国在推进经济结构战略性调整和转变经济发展方式的改革创新中,充分保障妇女经济权益,促进妇女平等参与经济发展、平等享有改革发展成果。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
Equal participation in economic activities and equitable access to economic resources are the basic conditions for the well-being and development of women. While pressing forward with a strategic adjustment of its economic structure and reform and innovation of its growth model, China fully protects the economic interests of women, promoting women's equal participation in economic development and equal access to the fruits of reform and development.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

妇女贫困状况显著改善。中国在实施全方位扶贫战略中,统筹考虑城镇化、老龄化、市场化及气候变化等因素对妇女贫困的影响,加大妇女扶贫脱贫力度。实施中国农村扶贫开发纲要,将妇女作为重点扶贫群体,同等条件下优先安排妇女扶贫项目,不断提升贫困妇女的发展能力和受益水平。贫困妇女数量大幅减少,妇女贫困程度不断降低。在592个国家扶贫开发工作重点县,女性人口的贫困发生率从2005年的20.3%下降到2010年的9.8%。建立完善新型社会救助体系,加大对贫困妇女的保障力度。2014年,妇女享受城乡居民最低生活保障的人数分别为792万人和1826万人,比2006年分别增加了200万人和1591万人。积极开展“贫困母亲两癌救助”“母亲安居工程”“母亲健康快车”等公益慈善项目,帮助患病贫困妇女、贫困单亲母亲改善生存与发展状况。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
Significant progress has been made in alleviating poverty among women. During the implementation of comprehensive poverty reduction strategies, China has given overall consideration to the impact of urbanization, aging, climate change and other social and market factors on poverty among women, and strengthened efforts to address such poverty. China has implemented a program for poverty alleviation through development in rural areas, making women a key focus of attention and giving priority to poverty alleviation projects for women when all other conditions are equal, striving to improve the development capacity of women and bringing more benefits to them as a group. The number of impoverished women has dropped by an enormous margin, and the severity of poverty of women has been continuously alleviated. In the 592 poorest counties which are made the main targets of national poverty alleviation and development work, the poverty rate of the female population decreased from 20.3 percent in 2005 to 9.8 percent in 2010. The state has established a new-model social relief system, increasing efforts to protect impoverished women. In 2014, the numbers of women covered by subsistence allowances for urban and rural residents were 7.92 million and 18.26 million respectively, increasing by 2 million and 15.91 million, as compared to 2006. The state has actively implemented a number of public welfare and charity programs for impoverished mothers, such as the program of relief for mothers suffering from breast cancer and cervical cancer, the comfortable housing project for impoverished rural single mothers, and the mother health express program, bringing help to sick women, poor single mothers and various other groups of mothers in need.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

保障妇女的平等就业权利。就业是民生之本。国家制定和完善法律法规,促进公平就业,消除就业性别歧视。《中华人民共和国就业促进法》专设“公平就业”一章,强调男女平等就业权利。《中华人民共和国劳动合同法》对企业订立女职工权益保护专项集体合同作出明确规定,为保障女职工合法权益提供了法律依据。制定、修订和实施《女职工劳动保护特别规定》、机关事业单位处级干部和高级职称专业技术人员男女同龄退休、支持女性科技人才成长及促进女大学生平等就业等一系列法规、政策及措施,为妇女就业和职业发展创造有利条件。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
The state ensures equal employment right for women. Employment has a vital bearing on people's quality of life. The state has promulgated and improved laws and regulations to promote fair employment and eliminate gender discrimination in employment. The Employment Promotion Law of the People's Republic of China has a chapter specially dealing with fair employment, emphasizing gender equality in employment right. The Labor Contract Law of the People's Republic of China has clear provisions under which businesses are required to create collective contracts for protecting female workers'rights and interests, providing a legal basis for protecting the legitimate rights and interests of female workers. To create favorable conditions for women's employment and career development, the state has also developed, amended and implemented the Special Regulations on Labor Protection of Female Employees, along with policies that enable women in positions as middle-ranking officials, senior professionals and technicians at state organs and public institutions to retire at the same age as their male counterparts, and policies to facilitate the growth of female scientists and promote equal employment opportunities for female college graduates.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

促进妇女就业创业。国家针对不同妇女群体就业创业中面临的困难,出台支持性政策措施。实施鼓励妇女就业创业的小额担保贷款财政贴息政策,2009年以来向妇女发放小额贴息贷款2220.6亿元人民币,扶植和带动千万妇女创业就业。大力发展家政服务和手工编织等行业,为城乡妇女就地就近和转移就业提供服务。开展女大学生就业创业扶持行动,为女大学生提供就业培训、创业指导、见习岗位。实施“阳光工程”,提高农村女性劳动力素质和就业技能,为促进农村女性劳动力向非农产业和城镇转移创造条件。全国共建立20多万所“妇女学校”,近2亿人次妇女参加农业新技术、新品种培训,150万名妇女获得农业技术员职称和绿色证书,创办5.3万个妇女专业合作组织。自2011年启动“城镇百万残疾人就业工程”以来,每年新增残疾妇女就业约10万人。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
The state helps women who are seeking employment and starting businesses. The state has introduced supportive policies and measures to address the difficulties of women in seeking employment and starting businesses. To engage women in employment and entrepreneurship, the state has introduced the small-sum guaranteed loan with financial discount. Since 2009, a total of 222.06 billion yuan has been issued in small discount loans to women, helping millions of women with their new businesses and careers. The state vigorously promotes the development of housekeeping services in urban areas and handicrafts, such as weaving and knitting, in rural areas, in order that women in cities and countryside can find employment locally and close to their homes, and also to promote employment transfer. It supports female college graduates in seeking employment and starting businesses, providing training in employment, guidance in starting businesses and internship opportunities, and it has implemented the Sunshine Project, improving the quality and skills of the rural female workforce and creating conditions to promote the transfer of rural female workforce to non-agricultural sectors and urban areas. There are now more than 200,000 training schools for women nationwide, providing training sessions to a total of nearly 200 million women in new agricultural technologies and new crop species. A total of 1.5 million women have obtained titles and qualifications as agricultural technicians, and 53,000 women's professional cooperatives have been founded. Following the launch of an employment promotion project for the disabled in urban areas in 2011, about 100,000 disabled women have joined the workforce each year.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

妇女就业结构不断改善。2013年,全国女性就业人数为34640万,占就业总数的45%。最新一期中国妇女社会地位调查显示,妇女从事第二、第三产业的比例比10年前提高了25个百分点,各类负责人、专业技术人员、办事人员及有关人员所占比例较10年前提高了13个百分点。2013年女性中高级专业技术人员达到661万人,占中高级专业技术人员的44.1%,比2000年提高了9个百分点。中国女企业家群体不断壮大,女企业家约占企业家总数的四分之一。实施“创业创新巾帼行动”,促进女性在新兴产业就业,互联网领域创业者中女性占55%。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
The state improves the employment structure for women. In 2013, the total number of women employed nationwide was 346.4 million, accounting for 45 percent of the total employed population. The latest survey of the social status of Chinese women shows that women in secondary and tertiary industries grew by 25 percentage points in comparison with 10 years ago, and that female heads of various departments, professional and technical personnel, and clerical and related personnel increased by 13 percentage points. In 2013, the number of middle-ranking and senior female professional and technical personnel reached 6.61 million, or 44.1 percent of the total in this category, an increase of 9 percentage points from that of 2000. The number of female entrepreneurs keeps growing, now accounting for one quarter of the total number of entrepreneurs in China. The government has initiated an action plan to promote entrepreneurship and innovation among women, encouraging women to seek employment in emerging industries. About 55 percent of new Internet businesses are being founded by women.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

保障农村妇女的土地权益。中国是一个农业大国,农村妇女约占农业劳动力的70%。在全面深化农村改革和推进基层依法自治的过程中,国家落实和完善保障农村妇女土地权益的法律政策,建立健全农村集体资金、资产、资源管理等各项制度,纠正与法律政策规定、性别平等原则相冲突的村规民约,确保农村妇女平等享有土地承包经营权、宅基地使用权和集体收益分配权。在土地承包经营权确权登记颁证工作中,明确登记簿和确权证上应体现妇女的土地权益,从源头上保障农村妇女的生存发展资源。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
The state protects the rights and interests of rural women in relation to land. China is a large agricultural country, and women living in rural areas account for about 70 percent of the total agricultural labor force. While forging ahead with deeper all-round reform and promoting village-level self-government in rural areas, the state has implemented and improved laws and policies on protecting the land rights of women in rural areas, established various systems for managing rural collective funds, assets and resources, corrected any village regulations and folk conventions for villagers that are in conflict with statutory regulations and the principle of gender equality, so as to ensure that women in rural areas enjoy equal rights of land contract and management, use of homesteads and distribution of collective income. In the verification, registration and certification of land contract and management rights, it is clearly ruled that women's rights and interests in relation to land must be given expression to in the registration book and land right certificate, so that women in rural areas are ensured access to the resources necessary for survival and development at source.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

提高妇女社会保障水平。《中华人民共和国社会保险法》把生育保险作为独立章节,明确规定妇女平等享有社会保障的权利。《中国妇女发展纲要(2011-2020年)》增设“妇女与社会保障”领域,提出妇女平等享有社会保险、社会救济、社会福利和社会救助的主要目标和策略措施。妇女参加养老保险、医疗保险、失业保险、工伤保险和生育保险人数不断增加。2013年,妇女参加城镇职工养老保险、城镇职工医疗保险的人数分别达到14612万和12657万,比2005年分别增加了6743万和7282万;妇女参加生育保险人数达到7117万,比2005年增加了4844万。2012年4月《女职工劳动保护特别规定》颁布实施,法定产假时间由原来的90天延长到98天,妇女享有生育保障的待遇不断提高。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
The state improves the level of social security for women. The Social Insurance Law of the People's Republic of China has a separate chapter for maternity insurance, clearly stipulating that women equally enjoy social security rights. In the Program for the Development of Chinese Women (2011-2020), a section titled "Women and Social Security" was added, defining the main goals, policies, and measures to enable women to enjoy equal access to social insurance, relief, welfare and assistance. The number of women participating in old-age insurance, medical insurance, unemployment insurance, industrial injury insurance, and maternity insurance keeps rising. In 2013, the numbers of women covered by old-age insurance and medical insurance for urban workers reached 146.12 million and 126.57 million, growing by 67.43 million and 72.82 million as compared to the figures in 2005, and the number of women participating in maternity insurance reached 71.17 million, an increase of 48.44 million as compared with 2005. In April 2012, the Special Regulations on Labor Protection for Female Employees was promulgated and put into effect, extending statutory maternity leave from 90 days to 98 days and increasing the level of maternity protection for women.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

六、妇女与环境IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
VI. Women and the Environment
IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

中国重视营造促进性别平等的社会文化环境,创造健康安全的自然环境,倡导平等和谐的文明家风,为妇女的生存发展创造良好条件。妇女在社会文化培育、生态环境保护和家庭建设中的独特作用日益凸显。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
China attaches great importance to creating a social and cultural environment conducive to boosting gender equality; through building a healthy and safe natural environment and fostering equal and harmonious family traditions, sound conditions have been created for women's development. Women are playing an increasingly prominent unique role in the fostering of social culture, protection of the ecological environment and family management.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

营造尊重妇女和两性平等发展的社会环境。各级党政部门、妇联组织及其他社会组织通过宣传倡导、教育培训、座谈研讨等多种形式,全方位、多渠道宣传男女平等基本国策,提升全社会性别平等意识。各级党政领导带头宣讲国策,发表署名文章,作专题报告,表明促进性别平等的意愿和行动。制定促进两性和谐发展的文化和传媒政策,禁止性别歧视。加强对传媒的正面引导和管理,培训媒体从业者,增强性别平等意识。完善传媒监管机制,监督新闻媒体和广告经营者严格自律,禁止在媒体中出现贬抑、否定妇女独立人格的歧视现象。大力宣传妇女在经济社会发展中的积极贡献。妇女在媒体领域发挥了重要作用,截至2014年底,持有新闻记者证的女性采编人员比例为44.1%。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
Creating a social environment in which women are respected and gender equality is upheld.The Party and government departments, women's federations and other social organizations at various levels promote the basic national policy of gender equality through various means, such as publicity campaigns, training courses and seminars. Leading Party and government officials at various levels have taken the lead in writing and publishing articles and making speeches to promote gender equality. China has developed cultural and media policies aimed to boost harmonious development between men and women and prohibit gender discrimination. The state has enhanced guidance and management of the media and has trained media workers to enhance their awareness of gender equality. China has improved supervision to ensure news media and advertising agents exercise strict self-discipline and avoid any discrimination against women in the media by depreciating or denying their independent personality. China has vigorously publicized the positive contribution made by women to economic and social development. Women are playing an important role in the media. By the end of 2014, female journalists and editors had made up 44.1 percent of qualified staff in this area.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

妇女的精神文化生活日益丰富。公共文化服务体系建设注重面向妇女群体,满足妇女的精神文化需求。全国范围内免费开放博物馆、美术馆、公共图书馆、文化馆和文化站等文化场所,不断发展数字图书馆,妇女的文化生活资源更加丰富。大力推动信息通信技术发展,为妇女文化交流与创新提供了新平台,截至2014年12月,中国女性网民共有2.83亿,占网民总数的43.6%。妇女休闲方式和内容更加多元。开展“亿万妇女健身活动”,妇女健身活动规模不断扩大。最新一期中国妇女社会地位调查显示,有55.2%的女性主动参加体育锻炼。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
Women's cultural life is being enriched. Public cultural services target women with the intention of satisfying their cultural demands. Museums, galleries, libraries and cultural centers nationwide are open to the public for free, and digital libraries are being developed, thus increasing women's access to culture. Major efforts have been made to boost the development of information technology, providing women with new platforms for cultural communication and innovation. By December 2014, Chinese women netizens numbered 283 million, accounting for 43.6 percent of the total netizens. Women have ever-increasing leisure opportunities. Fitness campaigns have been directed at hundreds of millions of women, and such activities are still gaining momentum. According to a recent survey of Chinese women's social status, 55.2 percent of women are taking an active part in physical exercises.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

妇女生活环境得到明显改善。《中国妇女发展纲要(2011-2020年)》提出改水改厕等与妇女生产生活密切相关的主要目标。目前,全国农村卫生厕所普及率由2000年的40.3%提高到2013年的74.1%,农村改水受益人数累计达9亿,改水累计受益率达95.6%,农村自来水普及率由2000年的55.2%提高到2013年的76.4%,改善了妇女生产生活环境,减轻了生产生活负担。重视发挥妇女在生态文明建设中的作用。更多妇女进入环保领域,为保护生态环境、应对气候变化、维护能源资源安全作出了积极贡献。全国人大环境与资源保护委员会的女委员、各级政府分管环境的女市长和女环保局长人数不断增加。截至2014年底,环境保护部机关女干部比例为31.2%。倡导妇女参与节能减排,践行低碳生活。妇女积极参与环境保护,以女性为主导的环保组织日益增多。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
The everyday environment for women is being markedly improved. The Program for the Development of Chinese Women (2011-2020) set goals for improving water supply services and toilets that have a positive impact on women's daily and working life. Access to sanitary toilets in rural areas increased from 40.3 percent in 2000 to 74.1 percent in 2013. Improved water supply in rural areas has benefitted a total of 900 million people, with accumulative benefit rate of 95.6 percent. Access to tap water in rural areas increased from 55.2 percent in 2000 to 76.4 percent in 2013. All these changes have helped improve the living environment of women and reduced their daily burden. China sets store by highlighting the role of women in building a conservation culture. More and more women are involved in environmental protection, making their contribution to protecting the ecological environment, addressing climate change and maintaining energy and resource security. The number of female members in the NPC Environment Protection and Resources Conservation Committee, female mayors in charge of environmental protection and female heads of environmental protection bureaus has kept increasing. By the end of 2014, female officials working at the Ministry of Environmental Protection accounted for 31.2 percent of the total. Women are encouraged to participate in energy conservation and emission reduction efforts, and to adopt low-carbon lifestyle. Women take part in environmental protection with enthusiasm, and environmental protection organizations with women playing a dominant role are on the rise.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

营造和谐、平等的家庭环境。国家人口发展“十二五”规划将促进性别平等、家庭和谐、倡导婚姻自由平等作为主要任务,促进家庭成员的平等发展。一些地方法规对女职工产假、男职工护理假及津贴作出明确规定,支持男女平衡工作与家庭、夫妻共担家庭责任。探索开展妇女与婚姻家庭社会工作,完善妇女社会支持系统。实施“关爱女孩行动”,改变传统男孩偏好的文化习俗。建立健全社会养老服务体系,老年妇女的生活条件得到改善,生活质量不断提高,贫困、丧偶和独居老年妇女得到特殊关照。积极开展“五好文明家庭”和“寻找最美家庭”等家庭文化建设活动,宣传倡导文明家风。20年来,婚姻家庭中的性别平等状况明显改善。最新一期中国妇女社会地位调查显示,夫妻共同决策家庭事务成为趋势,70%以上的妇女参与家庭重大事务决策。越来越多的妇女能够平等分享家庭资源,男女共同分担家务的观念得到更多认同,两性家务劳动时间差距由10年前的150分钟缩短到74分钟。IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
Building a harmonious and equal family environment. The 12th five-year plan for population development takes gender equality, family harmony and freedom and equality in marriage as its major goals. Some local regulations contain explicit provisions on maternity leave for female employees and nursing leave and subsidies for male employees, to support husbands and wives in balancing work and family and jointly sharing family responsibilities. China has conducted social studies of the relationship between women, marriage and family to improve the social support system for women. It has initiated "Care for Girls Action" to challenge the tradition of favoring boys. China has set up and improved systems of services for the elderly to ensure that elderly women's living conditions and quality of life are improved, and that impoverished, widowed and elderly women living alone are given special care. China actively launches campaigns to find "Model Family" and "The Most Harmonious Family" to foster the best family traditions. Over the past 20 years, a marked improvement has been seen in gender equality in marriages and families. The recent survey of Chinese women's social status shows that it has become the norm for husbands and wives to make family decisions jointly, and that more than 70 percent of women have taken part in making major family decisions. More and more women can share family resources on an equal basis with men, and the concept of men and women sharing housework is now accepted, with the housework time gap between men and women shortened from 150 minutes 10 years ago to 74 minutes now.IRG岳阳翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

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